麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)

创立于1861年, 坐落于美国马萨诸塞州剑桥市(大波士顿地区),是世界著名私立研究型大学。 作为世界顶尖高校,麻省理工学院尤其以自然及工程学享誉世界,位列2015-16 年世界大学学术排名(ARWU)工程学世界第1、计算机科学第2,与斯坦福大 学、加州大学伯克利分校一同被称为工程科技界的学术领袖。截至2017年,著名马萨诸塞州理工师生、校友或研究人员包括了91位诺贝尔奖得主、52位国家科学奖章获奖者、45位罗德学者、38名麦克阿瑟奖得主、6名菲尔兹奖获奖者、25位图灵奖得主。此校同时具很强的创业文化,由其校友所创办的公司利润总值相当于全球第十一大经济体。

麻省理工学院-环境工程科研

一、课题方向

Organic Geochemistry

有机地球化学

Biogeochemistry

生物地球化学

Biomarker

生物标志物

Carbon Cycling

碳循环

Climate Change

气候变化

Geology

地质学

Oceanography

海洋学

Marine Geology

海洋地质学

二、科研内容参考

课题一: Climate Change and Global Carbon 气候变化与全球碳循环

Keywords: climate change, carbon cycle, organic carbon, ocean

关键词:⽓气候变化,碳循环,有机碳,海洋

建议:本项⽬将集中讨论地球科学领域的一个热门话题:⽓气候变化。这个项⽬⾮常适合那些有兴趣了解过去地球气候如何变化并了解⼈类在过去一个世纪中如何引起气候变化的学生。

Introduction:

One of the primary goals of Earth sciences is to investigate the past to better predict Earths future. The carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere is an important parameter to consider as it is highly related to the temperature on Earth and therefore largely affects the evolution of the biosphere. Consequently, many studies focus on studying carbon cycling on Earth since atmospheric carbon dioxide is an important pool of global carbon cycle and closely interacts with many other carbon pools, such as carbon stored in rocks, sediments and soils. Since the industrial resolution in 1900s, human activities have largely elevated the natural carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere. It has been proposed that the atmospheric temperature has elevated by 0.7 degree since the industrial resolution. Rivers on Earth are an important pathway of carbon mobilization because rivers transport carbon from terrestrial sources, such as soils and plants to the ocean, where the carbon will be burial permanently. Considering that carbon in plants and soils are formed from the atmospheric carbon dioxide through photosynthesis, the river transport and the following carbon burial in the ocean serves as an effective way of drawing down the atmospheric carbon dioxide level. However, this process is complicated in the nature systems and requires many factors to be considered to better predict Earths future.

This primary goal of this project is to ensure students have a good understanding of Earth as a system and the general carbon cycling on earth. Many topic and processes will be covered in this project. As explained earlier, riverine transport of carbon from the land to the ocean is one topic. Another possible topic could be the erosion and oxidation of carbon from rocks. Other topics could be discussed if students have a specific preference. Students are encouraged to work on one specific process. Students will be recommended to make a presentation on the work they have done and a short review would be preferred in either English or Chinese.

课题二: Identifying Sources and Ages of Petroleum Oils Using Organic Geochemical Biomarkers 利⽤用有机地球化学⽣生物标志物识别⽯石油的来源和时代

Keywords: petroleum, oil, organic geochemistry, biomarker

关键词:⽯石油、⽯石油、有机地球化学、⽣生物标志物

Recommendation: This is a project designed for students who have background in chemistry and biology. This project is recommended for any students who are interested in the industrial market and research position for their career.

建议:这是一个为有化学和⽣物背景的学生设计的项⽬目。此项目适合对工业市场和研究感兴趣的学生。

Introduction:

Petroleum oil is formed in the sedimentary basins (e.g., paleo-lakes, coastal margins) over millions of years. Oil exploration, especially oil reservoir evaluation, requires us have a good understanding of when the oil was formed, how the oil was migrated and how good the quality of the oil is. Organic geochemistry is a popular tool of investigating properties of the oil and answering all these questions by analyzing oil samples quickly on the instrument. However, in order to answer all these questions and to provide useful consulting reports to the industry, it is necessary to have a solid background in organic geochemistry, especially oil related biomarkers. Specifically, it requires us understand how these biomarkers are formed and how they are altered depending on environmental conditions and the history of oil generation. In the meantime, many biomarkers used for oil exploration could be applied in many other fields, such as answering environmental related questions.

The goal of this project is to ensure students have a good understanding in organic geochemistry, to be familiar with some oil-related biomarkers. Meanwhile, students will be provided with data generated from real oil samples. Students are encouraged to explore the possible age, source, maturity of these oil samples based on the knowledge they will learn. Students are recommended to write a report including background of some specific biomarkers and the logic they use to diagnose these samples.

向上